The International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) Code was developed as a uniform international code for the transport of dangerous goods by sea covering such matters as packing, container traffic and stowage, with particular reference to the segregation of incompatible substances.
The Carriage of dangerous goods and marine pollutants in sea-going ships is respectively regulated in the International Convention for the Safety of the Life at Sea (SOLAS) and the International Convention for the Prevention of pollution from Ships (MARPOL).
Relevant parts of both SOLAS and MARPOL have been worked out in great detail and are included in the International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) Code, thus making this Code the legal instrument for maritime transport of dangerous goods and marine pollutants. As of 1st January 2004, the IMDG Code will become a mandatory requirement.
For all modes of transport (sea, air, rail, road and inland waterways) the classification (grouping) of dangerous goods, by type of risk involved, has been drawn up by the UNITED NATIONS Committee of Experts on the Transport of Dangerous Goods (UN).
Subclass 1.1: Explosives with a mass explosion hazard
Consists of explosives that have a mass explosion hazard. A mass explosion is
one which affects almost the entire load instantaneously.
Subclass 1.2: Explosives with a severe projection hazard
Consists of explosives that have a projection hazard but not a mass explosion
Subclass 1.3: Explosives with a fire
Consists of explosives that have a fire hazard and either a minor blast
hazard or a minor projection hazard or both but not a mass explosion hazard.
Subclass 1.4: Minor fire or projection hazard
Consists of explosives that present a minor explosion hazard. The explosive
effects are largely confined to the package and no projection of fragments of
appreciable size or range is to be expected. An external fire must not cause
virtually instantaneous explosion of almost the entire contents of the
Subclass 1.5: An insensitive substance
with a mass explosion hazard
Consists of very insensitive explosives with a mass explosion hazard
(explosion similar to 1.1). This division is comprised of substances which
have a mass explosion hazard but are so insensitive that there is very little
probability of initiation or of transition from burning to detonation under
normal conditions of transport.
Subclass 1.6: Extremely insensitive articles
Consists of extremely insensitive articles which do not have a mass explosive
hazard. This division is comprised of articles which contain only extremely
insensitive detonating substances and which demonstrate a negligible
probability of accidental initiation or propagation.
Class 2 :Gases
Subclass 2.1: Flammable Gas
Gases which ignite on contact with an ignition source, such as acetylene and
hydrogen. Flammable gas gas means any material which is ignitable at 101.3
kPa (14.7 psi) when in a mixture of 13 percent or less by volume with air, or
has a flammable range at 101.3 kPa (14.7 psi) with air of at least 12 percent
regardless of the lower limit.
Subclass 2.2: Non-Flammable Gases
Gases which are neither flammable nor poisonous. Includes the cryogenic
gases/liquids (temperatures of below -100°C) used for cryopreservation and
rocket fuels. This division includes compressed gas, liquefied gas,
pressurized cryogenic gas, compressed gas in solution, asphyxiant gas and
oxidizing gas. A non-flammable, nonpoisonous compressed gas means any
material which exerts in the packaging an absolute pressure of 280 kPa (40.6
psia) or greater at 20°C (68°F), and does not meet the definition of Division
2.1 or 2.3.
Subclass 2.3: Poisonous Gases
Gases liable to cause death or serious injury to human health if inhaled. Gas
poisonous by inhalation means a material which is a gas at 20°C or less and a
pressure of 101.3 kPa (a material which has a boiling point of 20°C or less
at 101.3kPa (14.7 psi)) which is known to be so toxic to humans as to pose a
hazard to health during transportation, or in the absence f adequate data on
human toxicity, is presumed to be toxic to humans because when tested on
laboratory animals it has an LC50 value of not more than 5000 ml/m3.
Class 3:Flammable Liquids
A flammable liquid means a liquid which may catch fire easily or any mixture having one or more components whith any flash point. As example: acetone, diesel, gasoline, kerosene, oil etc. There is strongly recomended for transportation at or above its flash point in a bulk packaging. There are three main groups of flammable liquid.Low flash point – liquids with flash point below -18°CIntermediate flash point – liquids with flash point from -18°C. up to +23°CHigh flash point group – liquids with flash point from +23°C
Class 4:Flammable solids or substances
Subclass 4.1: Flammable solids
Solid substances that are easily ignited. Self-reactive materials, which are
thermally unstable and that can undergo a strongly exothermic decomposition
even without participation of air. Readily combustible solids that can cause
a fire through friction and show a burning rate faster than 2.2 mm (0.087
inches) per second, or metal powders that can be ignited and react over the
whole length of a sample in 10 minutes or less.
Subclass 4.2: Spontaneously combustible solids
Solid substances that ignite spontaneously. Spontaneously combustible
material is a pyrophoric material, which is a liquid or solid that can ignite
within five minutes after coming in contact with air or a self-heating
material that when in contact with air and without an energy supply is liable
Subclass 4.3: Dangerous when wet
Solid substances that emit a flammable gas when wet. Dangerous when wet
material is a material that when it makes contact with water is liable to
become spontaneously flammable or give off flammable or toxic gas at a rate
greater than 1 L per kilogram of the material per hour.
Class 5: Oxidizing substances and organic peroxides
Oxidizing agent means a material that may, generally by yielding oxygen,
cause or enhance the combustion of other materials.
Subclass 5.2: Organic peroxide oxidizing agent
Organic peroxide means any organic compound containing oxygen in the bivalent
structure and which may be considered a derivative of hydrogen peroxide,
where one or more of the hydrogen atoms have been replaced by organic
Class 6:Toxic and infectious substances
Toxic substances which are able to cause death or serious hazard to humans
health during transportation.
Infectious Substance material is known to contain or suspected of containing
a pathogen. Infectious substances are substances which are known or are
reasonably expected to contain pathogens. Pathogens are defined as
micro-organisms (including bacteria, viruses, rickettsiae, parasites, fungi)
and other agents such as prions, which can cause disease in humans or
Class 7: Radioactive substances
Radioactive substances comprise substances or a combination of substances which
emit ionizing radiation
Class 8:Corrosive substances
Corrosive materials means a liquid or solid that causes full thickness destruction
of human skin at the site of contact within a specified period of time. A
liquid that has a severe corrosion rate on steel or aluminum is also a
Class 9:Miscellaneous dangerous substances and articles
A material which presents a hazard during transportation but which does not
meet the definition of any other hazard class. This class includes: any
material which has an anesthetic, noxious or other similar property which
could cause extreme annoyance or discomfort to a flight crew member so as to
prevent the correct performance of assigned duties or material for an
elevated temperature material, a hazardous substance, a hazardous waste, or a
Incoterms – a.k.a. Trade Terms are key elements of international contracts of sale. They tell the parties what to do with respect to carriage of the goods from buyer to seller, and export & import clearance. They also explain the division of costs and risks between the parties. The difference between the 2000 and the 2010 version is the number of Incoterms has been reduced from 13 to 11. Four Incoterms (DAF, DES, DEQ, DDU) have been replaced by two new Incoterms (DAT , DAP). The replaced Incoterms DAF, DES and DEQ were not used much in day to day trading.
EXW – ExWorks (2000 and 2010) This term represents the seller’s minimum obligation, since he only has to place the goods at the disposal of the buyer. The buyer must carry out all tasks of export & import clearance. Carriage & insurance is to be arranged by the buyer.
FCA – Free Carrier (2000 and 2010) This term means that the seller delivers the goods, cleared for export, to the carrier nominated by the buyer at the named place. Seller pays for carriage to the named place.
FAS – Free Alongside Ship (2000 and 2010) This term means that the seller delivers when the goods are placed alongside the vessel at the named port of shipment. The seller is required to clear the goods for export. The buyer has to bear all costs & risks of loss or damage to the goods from that moment. This term can be used for ocean transport only.
FOB – Free On Board (2000 and 2010) This term means that the seller delivers when the goods pass the ship’s rail at the named port of shipment. This means the buyer has to bear all costs & risks to the goods from that point. The seller must clear the goods for export. This term can only be used for ocean transport. If the parties do not intend to deliver the goods across the ship’s rail, the FCA term should be used.
CFR – Cost and Freight (2000 and 2010) This term means the seller delivers when the goods pass the ship’s rail in the port of shipment. Seller must pay the costs & freight necessary to bring the goods to the named port of destination, BUT the risk of loss or damage, as well as any additional costs due to events occurring after the time of delivery are transferred from seller to buyer. Seller must clear goods for export. This term can only be used for ocean transport.
CIF – Cost, Insurance, Freight (2000 and 2010) The seller delivers when the goods pass the ship’s rail in the port of shipment. Seller must pay the cost & freight necessary to bring goods to named port of destination. Risk of loss & damage same as CFR. Seller also has to procure marine insurance against buyer’s risk of loss/damage during the carriage. Seller must clear the goods for export. This term can only be used for ocean transport.
CIP – Carriage and Insurance Paid (2000 and 2010) This term is the same as CPT with the exception that the seller also has to procure insurance against the buyer’s risk of loss or damage to the goods during the carriage. This term may be used for any mode of transportation.
CPT – Carriage Paid To (2000 and 2010)
This term means that the seller delivers the goods to the carrier nominated by him but the seller must in addition pay the cost of carriage necessary to bring the goods to the named destination. The buyer bears all costs occurring after the goods have been so delivered. The seller must clear the goods for export. This term may be used irrespective of the mode of transport (including multimodal).
DAF – Delivered At Frontier (2000)
This term means that the seller delivers when the goods are placed at the disposal of the buyer on the arriving means of transport not unloaded, cleared for export but not cleared for import, at the named point & place at the frontier – but before the customs border of the adjoining country. To be used when delivering to a land frontier.
DES – Delivered Ex Ship (2000)
Seller delivers when goods are placed at the disposal of the buyer on board the ship, not cleared for import at the named port of destination. The seller bears all costs & risks in bringing the goods to the named port before discharging. This term can only be used when the goods are to be delivered by ocean.
DEQ – Delivered Ex Quay (2000)
This terms is the same as DES with the exception that the seller is responsible to place the goods at the disposal of the buyer, not cleared for import, on the quay (wharf) at the named port of destination. Seller bears all costs & risks as in DES plus discharging the goods on the quay. This term can only be used in ocean transport.
DDU – Delivered Duty Unpaid (2000)
This term means the seller delivers the goods to the buyer, not cleared for import, and not unloaded from arriving means of transport at the named place of destination. The seller bears all costs & risks involved in bringing the goods to the named place other than “duty” (which includes the responsibility for customs formalities & payment of those formalities, duties & taxes) for import into the country of destination. Buyer is responsible for payment of all customs & duties & taxes.
DDP – Delivered Duty Paid (2000 and 2010)
This term represents maximum obligation to the seller. This term should not be used if the seller is unable to directly or indirectly to obtain the import license. The terms means the same as the DDU term with the exception that the seller also will bear all costs & risks of carrying out customs formalities including the payment of duties, taxes & customs fees.
DAT – Delivered at Terminal (named terminal at port or place of destination) (2010)
Seller pays for carriage to the terminal, except for costs related to import clearance, and assumes all risks up to the point that the goods are unloaded at the terminal.
DAP – Delivered At Place (named place of destination) (2010)
Seller pays for carriage to the named place, except for costs related to import clearance, and assumes all risks prior to the point that the goods are ready for unloading by the buyer.
Incoterm (international delivery terms), what’s in it?
The incoterms define the role between seller and buyer at an international transaction. Who has to do what en at what time? In the contract between the seller and the buyer, the following is determined: The duties of the buyer and the seller Who takes care of the insurances, licences, permissions and all other formalities Who arranges the transport untill which point and who is responsible for this The point where the costs and risks pass on from the seller to the buyer.
There are thirteen different incoterms in Incoterms 2000 and 2010. These incoterms take care of the international rights and duties from the buyer and the seller. Six of of the thirteen incoterms are about ocean freight. The remaining seven incoterms are regarding all transport modalities. The Incoterms are being prepared and published by the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC).