Essay Guidelines – How to Start Your Paper

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How to Prepare An Excellent Composition

How to Prepare An Excellent Composition

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How to Compose an Argumentative Research Report

How to Compose an Argumentative Research Report

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Point charts are instructional tools shown within the classroom for students to guide.

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The ergonomic style can choose if it is relaxed to wear and simple to placed on and remove.

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How to Research a Paper

How to Research a Paper

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Would You Like to Eliminate Your Organization Partner

Would You Like to Eliminate Your Organization Partner

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Making Your Paper Powerful

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Shipping Containers Sizes

20-foot Dry Container Dimensions

Container Reference Code:22GP
Container Application:The 20-foot dry container is for general purpose cargo.
Container Dimensions:WidthHeightLength
Door opening in feet7′ 8 ⅛”7′ 6 ¼”
Door opening in meters2.34 m2.29 m
Interior dimensions in feet7′ 8 ⅝”7′ 6 ¼”19′ 4 ¼”
Interior dimensions in meters2.34 m2.29 m5.9 m
Container WeightMax GrossTareMax Payload
Weight in lbs52,831 lbs4,914 lbs47,899 lbs
Weight in kg23,956 kg2,229 kg21,727 kg
Container VolumeIn CFTIn CBM
Load Capacity1,172 CFT33.2 CBM

20-foot Flat Rack Container Dimensions

Container Reference Code:22PC
Container Application:The 20-foot flat rack container is for especially heavy loads, over-sized cargo, construction equipment, building supplies or heavy machinery.
Container Dimensions:WidthHeightLength
Interior dimensions in feet8′7′ 3 ⅞”19′ 9 ¾”
Interior dimensions in meters2.438 m2.233 m5.638 m
Container WeightMax GrossTareMax Payload
Weight in lbs99,200 lbs6,400 lbs92,800 lbs
Weight in kg45,000 kg2,900 kg42,100 kg
Load Capacity1,154.3 CFT32.7 CBM

20-foot Open-Top Container Dimensions

Container Reference Code:22U1
Container Application:The 20-foot open-top container is for over-height cargo and top loading.
Container Dimensions:WidthHeightLength
Door opening in feet7′ 8 ⅛”7′ 6 ¼”
Door opening in meters2.34 m2.29 m
Interior dimensions in feet7′ 8 ⅝”7′ 10 ¼”19′ 4 ¼”
Interior dimensions in meters2.352 m2.395 m5.9 m
Container WeightMax GrossTareMax Payload
Weight in lbs52,897 lbs5,297 lbs47,619 lbs
Weight in kg23,994 kg2,394 kg21,600 kg
Container VolumeIn CFTIn CBM
Load Capacity1,172 CFT33.2 CBM

20-foot Ventilated Container Dimensions

Container Reference Code:22VH
Container Application:The 20-foot ventilated container is for cargo that requires ventilation, typically used to transport green coffee beans or similar cargo.
Container Dimensions:WidthHeightLength
Door opening in feet7′ 8 ⅛”7′ 6 ¼”
Door opening in meters2.34 m2.29 m
Interior dimensions in feet7′ 8 ⅝”7′ 10 ¼”19′ 4 ¼”
Interior dimensions in meters2.352 m2.395 m5.9 m
Container WeightMax GrossTareMax Payload
Weight in lbs52,897 lbs5,297 lbs47,899 lbs
Weight in kg32,500 kg2,394 kg21,727 kg
Container VolumeIn CFTIn CBM
Load Capacity1,172 CFT33.2 CBM

20-foot Refrigerated Container Dimensions

Container Reference Code:22RT
Container Application:The 20-foot refrigerated container is for cargo that requires temperature control.
Container Dimensions:WidthHeightLength
Door opening in feet7′ 8 ⅛”7′ 6 ¼”
Door opening in meters2.34 m2.29 m
Interior dimensions in feet7’6″7′ 4 ⅞”17′ 11 ⅝”
Interior dimensions in meters2.28 m2.33 m5.45 m
Container WeightMax GrossTareMax Payload
Weight in lbs67,200 lbs6,970 lbs60,230 lbs
Weight in kg30,480 kg3,160 kg27,320 kg

40-foot General Purpose Dry Container Dimensions

Container Reference Code:42GP
Container Application:The 40-foot dry container is for general purpose cargo.
Container Dimensions:WidthHeightLength
Door opening in feet7′ 8 ⅛”7′ 6 ¼”
Door opening in meters2.34 m2.29 m
Interior dimensions in feet7′ 8 ⅝”7′ 10 ¼”37′ 11 ¼”
Interior dimensions in meters2.352 m2.395 m12.01 m
Container WeightMax GrossTareMax Payload
Weight in lbs67,199 lbs5,220 lbs59,039 lbs
Weight in kg30,481 kg3,701 kg26,780 kg
Container VolumeIn CFTIn CBM
Load Capacity2,389.75 CFT67.67 CBM

40-foot Open Top Container Dimensions

Container Reference Code:42OT
Container Application:The 40-foot open top container is for top loading for excessively long or high cargo.
Container Dimensions:WidthHeightLength
Door opening in feet7′ 8 ⅛”7′ 6 ¼”
Door opening in meters2.34 m2.29 m
Interior dimensions in feet7′ 8 ⅝”7′ 10 ¼”39′ 5 ⅝”
Interior dimensions in meters2.352 m2.395 m12.01 m
Container WeightMax GrossTareMax Payload
Weight in lbs67,196 lbs8,487 lbs58,709 lbs
Weight in kg30,480 kg3,850 kg26,630 kg
Container VolumeIn CFTIn CBM
Load Capacity2,389.75 CFT66.67 CBM

40-foot High Cube Container Dimensions

Container Reference Code:40HQ or 40HC
Container Application:The 40-foot High Cube container is larger than the 40-foot standard dry container.
Container Dimensions:WidthHeightLength
Door opening in feet7′ 8 ⅛”8′ 6 ¼”
Door opening in meters2.34 m2.56 m
Interior dimensions in feet7′ 8 ⅝”8′ 10 ⅛”39′ 5 ⅝”
Interior dimensions in meters2.352 m2.69 m12.01 m
Container WeightMax GrossTareMax Payload
Weight in lbs67,196 lbs8,747 lbs58,448 lbs
Weight in kg30,480 kg3,968 kg26,512 kg
Container VolumeIn CFTIn CBM
Load Capacity2,694 CFT76.3 CBM

40-foot Flat Rack Container Dimensions

Container Reference Code:42PC
Container Application:The 40-foot flat rack container is for over-sized cargo, heavy machinery, construction equipment, or supplies.
Container Dimensions:WidthHeightLength
Door opening in feetNANA
Door opening in metersNANA
Interior dimensions in feet7′ 4″7′ 5 ⅓”39′ 3 ⅞”
Interior dimensions in meters2.23 m2.27 m11.98 m
Container WeightMax GrossTareMax Payload
Weight in lbs98,326 lbs12,897 lbs85,429 lbs
Weight in kg44,600 kg5,850 kg38,750 kg
Container VolumeIn CFTIn CBM
Load Capacity1,860 CFT52.7 CBM

40-foot Refrigerated Container Dimensions

Container Reference Code:42RT
Container Application:The 40-foot refrigerated container is for cargo that requires temperature control or perishable cargo.
Container Dimensions:WidthHeightLength
Door opening in feet7′ 5 ⅜”6′ 11 ⅞”
Door opening in meters2.26 m2.13 m
Interior dimensions in feet7’5 ⅜”7′ 1 ⅞”37′ 11 ¼”
Interior dimensions in meters2.26 m2.18 m11.48 m
Container WeightMax GrossTareMax Payload
Weight in lbs67,053 lbs10,778 lbs56,275 lbs
Weight in kg30,415 kg4,889 kg25,526 kg
Container VolumeIn CFTIn CBM
Load Capacity2,039.7 CFT57.76 CBM

45-foot High Cube General Purpose Container Dimensions

Container Reference Code:L5GO
Container Application:The 45-foot high cube dry container is for general purpose cargo.
Container Dimensions:WidthHeightLength
Door opening in feet7′ 9½”8′ 5 ¾”
Door opening in meters2.37 m2.58 m
Interior dimensions in feet7′ 11″8′ 10″44′ 4 ¾”
Interior dimensions in meters2.41 m2.69 m13.53 m
Container WeightMax GrossTareMax Payload
Weight in lbs74,960 lbs10,910 lbs64,050 lbs
Weight in kg3,4000 kg4,950 kg29,050 kg
Container VolumeIn CFTIn CBM
Load Capacity3,122 CFT88.4 CBM

20-Foot Tank Container Dimensions

Container Reference Code:22TO
Container Application:The 20-foot tank container is for food stuffs, oils, and chemicals.
Container Dimensions:WidthHeightLength
Exterior dimensions in feet8′8′ 6″20″
Exterior dimensions in meters2.43 m2.59 m6.09 m
Container VolumeIn U.S. GallonsIn Liters
Load Capacity6,450 gl26,001 lt

The International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) Codes

The International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) Code was developed as a uniform international code for the transport of dangerous goods by sea covering such matters as packing, container traffic and stowage, with particular reference to the segregation of incompatible substances.

The Carriage of dangerous goods and marine pollutants in sea-going ships is respectively regulated in the International Convention for the Safety of the Life at Sea (SOLAS) and the International Convention for the Prevention of pollution from Ships (MARPOL).

Relevant parts of both SOLAS and MARPOL have been worked out in great detail and are included in the International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) Code, thus making this Code the legal instrument for maritime transport of dangerous goods and marine pollutants. As of 1st January 2004, the IMDG Code will become a mandatory requirement.

For all modes of transport (sea, air, rail, road and inland waterways) the classification (grouping) of dangerous goods, by type of risk involved, has been drawn up by the UNITED NATIONS Committee of Experts on the Transport of Dangerous Goods (UN).
 
Class 1:Explosives

Subclass 1.1Explosives with a mass explosion hazard

Consists of explosives that have a mass explosion hazard. A mass explosion is one which affects almost the entire load instantaneously.
Subclass 1.2Explosives with a severe projection hazard

Consists of explosives that have a projection hazard but not a mass explosion hazard.
Subclass 1.3Explosives with a fire

Consists of explosives that have a fire hazard and either a minor blast hazard or a minor projection hazard or both but not a mass explosion hazard.
Subclass 1.4Minor fire or projection hazard

Consists of explosives that present a minor explosion hazard. The explosive effects are largely confined to the package and no projection of fragments of appreciable size or range is to be expected. An external fire must not cause virtually instantaneous explosion of almost the entire contents of the package.
Subclass 1.5: An insensitive substance with a mass explosion hazard

Consists of very insensitive explosives with a mass explosion hazard (explosion similar to 1.1). This division is comprised of substances which have a mass explosion hazard but are so insensitive that there is very little probability of initiation or of transition from burning to detonation under normal conditions of transport.
Subclass 1.6Extremely insensitive articles

Consists of extremely insensitive articles which do not have a mass explosive hazard. This division is comprised of articles which contain only extremely insensitive detonating substances and which demonstrate a negligible probability of accidental initiation or propagation.



Class 2 :Gases

Subclass 2.1Flammable Gas

Gases which ignite on contact with an ignition source, such as acetylene and hydrogen. Flammable gas gas means any material which is ignitable at 101.3 kPa (14.7 psi) when in a mixture of 13 percent or less by volume with air, or has a flammable range at 101.3 kPa (14.7 psi) with air of at least 12 percent regardless of the lower limit.
Subclass 2.2Non-Flammable Gases

Gases which are neither flammable nor poisonous. Includes the cryogenic gases/liquids (temperatures of below -100°C) used for cryopreservation and rocket fuels. This division includes compressed gas, liquefied gas, pressurized cryogenic gas, compressed gas in solution, asphyxiant gas and oxidizing gas. A non-flammable, nonpoisonous compressed gas means any material which exerts in the packaging an absolute pressure of 280 kPa (40.6 psia) or greater at 20°C (68°F), and does not meet the definition of Division 2.1 or 2.3.
Subclass 2.3Poisonous Gases

Gases liable to cause death or serious injury to human health if inhaled. Gas poisonous by inhalation means a material which is a gas at 20°C or less and a pressure of 101.3 kPa (a material which has a boiling point of 20°C or less at 101.3kPa (14.7 psi)) which is known to be so toxic to humans as to pose a hazard to health during transportation, or in the absence f adequate data on human toxicity, is presumed to be toxic to humans because when tested on laboratory animals it has an LC50 value of not more than 5000 ml/m3.



Class 3:Flammable Liquids

A flammable liquid means a liquid which may catch fire easily or any mixture having one or more components whith any flash point. As example: acetone, diesel, gasoline, kerosene, oil etc. There is strongly recomended for transportation at or above its flash point in a bulk packaging. There are three main groups of flammable liquid.Low flash point – liquids with flash point below -18°CIntermediate flash point – liquids with flash point from -18°C. up to +23°CHigh flash point group – liquids with flash point from +23°C


Class 4:Flammable solids or substances

Subclass 4.1Flammable solids

Solid substances that are easily ignited. Self-reactive materials, which are thermally unstable and that can undergo a strongly exothermic decomposition even without participation of air. Readily combustible solids that can cause a fire through friction and show a burning rate faster than 2.2 mm (0.087 inches) per second, or metal powders that can be ignited and react over the whole length of a sample in 10 minutes or less.
Subclass 4.2Spontaneously combustible solids

Solid substances that ignite spontaneously. Spontaneously combustible material is a pyrophoric material, which is a liquid or solid that can ignite within five minutes after coming in contact with air or a self-heating material that when in contact with air and without an energy supply is liable to self-heat.
Subclass 4.3Dangerous when wet

Solid substances that emit a flammable gas when wet. Dangerous when wet material is a material that when it makes contact with water is liable to become spontaneously flammable or give off flammable or toxic gas at a rate greater than 1 L per kilogram of the material per hour.


Class 5: Oxidizing substances and organic peroxides

Subclass 5.1Oxidizing agent

Oxidizing agent means a material that may, generally by yielding oxygen, cause or enhance the combustion of other materials.
 
Subclass 5.2Organic peroxide oxidizing agent

Organic peroxide means any organic compound containing oxygen in the bivalent structure and which may be considered a derivative of hydrogen peroxide, where one or more of the hydrogen atoms have been replaced by organic radicals.
 


Class 6:Toxic and infectious substances

Subclass 6.1: Poison

Toxic substances which are able to cause death or serious hazard to humans health during transportation.
Subclass 6.2Biohazard

Infectious Substance material is known to contain or suspected of containing a pathogen. Infectious substances are substances which are known or are reasonably expected to contain pathogens. Pathogens are defined as micro-organisms (including bacteria, viruses, rickettsiae, parasites, fungi) and other agents such as prions, which can cause disease in humans or animals.


Class 7: Radioactive substances

Radioactive

Radioactive substances comprise substances or a combination of substances which emit ionizing radiation


Class 8:Corrosive substances

Corrosive

Corrosive materials means a liquid or solid that causes full thickness destruction of human skin at the site of contact within a specified period of time. A liquid that has a severe corrosion rate on steel or aluminum is also a corrosive material.


Class 9:Miscellaneous dangerous substances and articles

Miscellaneous

A material which presents a hazard during transportation but which does not meet the definition of any other hazard class. This class includes: any material which has an anesthetic, noxious or other similar property which could cause extreme annoyance or discomfort to a flight crew member so as to prevent the correct performance of assigned duties or material for an elevated temperature material, a hazardous substance, a hazardous waste, or a marine pollutant.

Shipping Incoterms

Shipping Incoterms

What are Incoterms?

Incoterms – a.k.a. Trade Terms are key elements of international contracts of sale. They tell the parties what to do with respect to carriage of the goods from buyer to seller, and export & import clearance. They also explain the division of costs and risks between the parties.
The difference between the 2000 and the 2010 version is the number of Incoterms has been reduced from 13 to 11. Four Incoterms (DAF, DES, DEQ, DDU) have been replaced by two new Incoterms (DAT , DAP). The replaced Incoterms DAF, DES and DEQ were not used much in day to day trading.

 

EXW – ExWorks (2000 and 2010)
This term represents the seller’s minimum obligation, since he only has to place the goods at the disposal of the buyer. The buyer must carry out all tasks of export & import clearance. Carriage & insurance is to be arranged by the buyer.

FCA – Free Carrier (2000 and 2010)
This term means that the seller delivers the goods, cleared for export, to the carrier nominated by the buyer at the named place. Seller pays for carriage to the named place.

FAS – Free Alongside Ship (2000 and 2010)
This term means that the seller delivers when the goods are placed alongside the vessel at the named port of shipment. The seller is required to clear the goods for export. The buyer has to bear all costs & risks of loss or damage to the goods from that moment. This term can be used for ocean transport only.

FOB – Free On Board (2000 and 2010)
This term means that the seller delivers when the goods pass the ship’s rail at the named port of shipment. This means the buyer has to bear all costs & risks to the goods from that point. The seller must clear the goods for export. This term can only be used for ocean transport. If the parties do not intend to deliver the goods across the ship’s rail, the FCA term should be used.

CFR – Cost and Freight (2000 and 2010)
This term means the seller delivers when the goods pass the ship’s rail in the port of shipment. Seller must pay the costs & freight necessary to bring the goods to the named port of destination, BUT the risk of loss or damage, as well as any additional costs due to events occurring after the time of delivery are transferred from seller to buyer. Seller must clear goods for export. This term can only be used for ocean transport.

CIF – Cost, Insurance, Freight (2000 and 2010)
The seller delivers when the goods pass the ship’s rail in the port of shipment. Seller must pay the cost & freight necessary to bring goods to named port of destination. Risk of loss & damage same as CFR. Seller also has to procure marine insurance against buyer’s risk of loss/damage during the carriage. Seller must clear the goods for export. This term can only be used for ocean transport.

CIP – Carriage and Insurance Paid (2000 and 2010)
This term is the same as CPT with the exception that the seller also has to procure insurance against the buyer’s risk of loss or damage to the goods during the carriage. This term may be used for any mode of transportation.

CPT – Carriage Paid To (2000 and 2010)

This term means that the seller delivers the goods to the carrier nominated by him but the seller must in addition pay the cost of carriage necessary to bring the goods to the named destination. The buyer bears all costs occurring after the goods have been so delivered. The seller must clear the goods for export. This term may be used irrespective of the mode of transport (including multimodal).

DAF – Delivered At Frontier (2000)

This term means that the seller delivers when the goods are placed at the disposal of the buyer on the arriving means of transport not unloaded, cleared for export but not cleared for import, at the named point & place at the frontier – but before the customs border of the adjoining country. To be used when delivering to a land frontier.

DES – Delivered Ex Ship (2000)

Seller delivers when goods are placed at the disposal of the buyer on board the ship, not cleared for import at the named port of destination. The seller bears all costs & risks in bringing the goods to the named port before discharging. This term can only be used when the goods are to be delivered by ocean.

DEQ – Delivered Ex Quay (2000)

This terms is the same as DES with the exception that the seller is responsible to place the goods at the disposal of the buyer, not cleared for import, on the quay (wharf) at the named port of destination. Seller bears all costs & risks as in DES plus discharging the goods on the quay. This term can only be used in ocean transport.

DDU – Delivered Duty Unpaid (2000)

This term means the seller delivers the goods to the buyer, not cleared for import, and not unloaded from arriving means of transport at the named place of destination. The seller bears all costs & risks involved in bringing the goods to the named place other than “duty” (which includes the responsibility for customs formalities & payment of those formalities, duties & taxes) for import into the country of destination. Buyer is responsible for payment of all customs & duties & taxes.

DDP – Delivered Duty Paid (2000 and 2010)

This term represents maximum obligation to the seller. This term should not be used if the seller is unable to directly or indirectly to obtain the import license. The terms means the same as the DDU term with the exception that the seller also will bear all costs & risks of carrying out customs formalities including the payment of duties, taxes & customs fees.

DAT – Delivered at Terminal (named terminal at port or place of destination) (2010)

Seller pays for carriage to the terminal, except for costs related to import clearance, and assumes all risks up to the point that the goods are unloaded at the terminal.

DAP – Delivered At Place (named place of destination) (2010)

Seller pays for carriage to the named place, except for costs related to import clearance, and assumes all risks prior to the point that the goods are ready for unloading by the buyer.

Incoterm (international delivery terms), what’s in it?

The incoterms define the role between seller and buyer at an international transaction. Who has to do what en at what time? In the contract between the seller and the buyer, the following is determined:
The duties of the buyer and the seller
Who takes care of the insurances, licences, permissions and all other formalities
Who arranges the transport untill which point and who is responsible for this
The point where the costs and risks pass on from the seller to the buyer.

There are thirteen different incoterms in Incoterms 2000 and 2010. These incoterms take care of the international rights and duties from the buyer and the seller. Six of of the thirteen incoterms are about ocean freight. The remaining seven incoterms are regarding all transport modalities. The Incoterms are being prepared and published by the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC).